Greek was first written in Mycenae with a script known as Linear B, which was used between about 1500 and 1200 BC. The use of both vowels and consonants makes Greek the first alphabet in the narrow sense,[6] as distinguished from the abjads used in Semitic languages, which have letters only for consonants.[37]. The Greek alphabet is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts. Learning the Greek alphabet is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The open sounds with “free” breath are the vowel letters, and the closed sounds with restricted breath are the consonant letters. Crossword Clue The crossword clue Greek letter that sounds like part of a spreadsheet with 3 letters was last seen on the December 15, 2019.We think the likely answer to this clue is RHO.Below are all possible answers to this clue ordered by its rank. Nevertheless, in the Unicode encoding standard, the following three phonetic symbols are considered the same characters as the corresponding Greek letters proper:[58]. For the range A0–FF (hex), it follows the Unicode range 370–3CF (see below) except that some symbols, like ©, ½, § etc. Featuring some of the most popular crossword puzzles, XWordSolver.com uses the knowledge of experts in history, anthropology, and science combined to provide you solutions when you cannot seem to guess the word. Unicode supports polytonic orthography well enough for ordinary continuous text in modern and ancient Greek, and even many archaic forms for epigraphy. Greek alphabet, writing system that was developed in Greece about 1000 bce.It is the direct or indirect ancestor of all modern European alphabets. are used where Unicode has unused locations. 1.01 The types of Greek letters in the alphabet Two major types of speech sounds constitute the Greek alphabet as with the English alphabet. To type accented letters, type the letter (for example, υ), then press 1 to add the tonos or 2 to add the dialytika. The clue "World capital that sounds like two Greek letters" was last spotted by us at the NewsDay.com Crossword on February 22 2020. Five were reassigned to denote vowel sounds: the glide consonants /j/ (yodh) and /w/ (waw) were used for [i] (Ι, iota) and [u] (Υ, upsilon) respectively; the glottal stop consonant /ʔ/ (aleph) was used for [a] (Α, alpha); the pharyngeal /ʕ/ (ʿayin) was turned into [o] (Ο, omicron); and the letter for /h/ (he) was turned into [e] (Ε, epsilon). [30] In modern scholarly transliteration of Ancient Greek, ⟨κ⟩ will usually be rendered as ⟨k⟩, and the vowel combinations ⟨αι, οι, ει, ου⟩ as ⟨ai, oi, ei, ou⟩ respectively. Below you will be able to hear how the letters above are pronounced, just press the play button: The alphabet and its pronunciation have a very important role in Greek. While it looks different, it is actually the forebear of all European alphabets. Eventually, a seventh vowel letter for the long /ɔː/ (Ω, omega) was introduced. The correspondences are as follows: Among the vowel symbols, Modern Greek sound values reflect the radical simplification of the vowel system of post-classical Greek, merging multiple formerly distinct vowel phonemes into a much smaller number. The better you pronounce a letter in a word, the more understood you will be in speaking the Greek language. Johnston, "The alphabet", in N. Stampolidis and V. Karageorghis, eds, Additionally, the more ancient combination ⟨. Also don't forget to check the rest of our other lessons listed on Learn Greek. In North America, many college fraternities and sororities are named with combinations of Greek letters, and are hence also known as "Greek letter organizations". They took much of their alphabet from the Phoenician alphabet, but they added a few new letters. The symbol in Americanist phonetic notation for the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is the Greek letter lambda ⟨λ⟩, but ⟨ɬ⟩ in the IPA. Letter combinations in Greek. [40] Some variant local letter forms were also characteristic of Athenian writing, some of which were shared with the neighboring (but otherwise "red") alphabet of Euboia: a form of Λ that resembled a Latin L () and a form of Σ that resembled a Latin S (). In the classical Ionian system, the first nine letters of the alphabet stood for the numbers from 1 to 9, the next nine letters stood for the multiples of 10, from 10 to 90, and the next nine letters stood for the multiples of 100, from 100 to 900. Greek is strange when it comes to pronouncing and writing words with the “s” sound, represented by the Greek letter sigma. The period between the use of the two writing systems, during which no Greek texts are attested, is known as the Greek Dark Ages. They also assigned some of the letters to vowel sounds. Among consonant letters, all letters that denoted voiced plosive consonants (/b, d, g/) and aspirated plosives (/pʰ, tʰ, kʰ/) in Ancient Greek stand for corresponding fricative sounds in Modern Greek. Name every letter in these words. If two vowels came together, they preferred either to pronounce the two vowels together as one sound (called a DIPHTHONG, Greek for “double sound”), or to CONTRACT the two vowels to form either a single long vowel or diphthong (cf. The IPA symbol for the palatal lateral approximant is ⟨ʎ⟩, which looks similar to lambda, but is actually an inverted lowercase y. Greek letters were also used to write numbers. Several letter combinations have special conventional sound values different from those of their single components. [11] Thus, the letters ⟨ο⟩ and ⟨ω⟩, pronounced identically by this time, were called o mikron ("small o") and o mega ("big o") respectively. The Latin alphabet has some script letters that do not exist in the Greek alphabet, such as B, C, D, G, W, Q and J. Modern Greek orthography remains true to the historical spellings in most of these cases. Θ θ – theta – “th” like there. For computer usage, a variety of encodings have been used for Greek online, many of them documented in .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}RFC 1947. In Archaic and early Classical times, the Greek alphabet existed in many local variants, but, by the end of the fourth century BC, the Euclidean alphabet, with twenty-four letters, ordered from alpha to omega, had become standard and it is this version that is still used to write Greek today. In Modern Greek these names are spelled with -ι. Ε was used for all three sounds /e, eː, ɛː/ (correspondinɡ to classical Ε, ΕΙ, Η respectively), and Ο was used for all of /o, oː, ɔː/ (corresponding to classical Ο, ΟΥ, Ω respectively). Like all ISO-8859 encodings, it is equal to ASCII for 00–7F (hex). Epichoric alphabets are commonly divided into four major types according to their different treatments of additional consonant letters for the aspirated consonants (/pʰ, kʰ/) and consonant clusters (/ks, ps/) of Greek. This was also a K sound, some times in place of kappa entirely other times just used as a spelling convention when the k sound was followed by an o. The links above are only a small sample of our lessons, please open the left side menu to see all links. The two principal ones still used today are ISO/IEC 8859-7 and Unicode. In the late ninth century BC or early eighth century BC, the Greek alphabet emerged. In addition, both in Ancient and Modern Greek, the letter ⟨γ⟩, before another velar consonant, stands for the velar nasal [ŋ]; thus ⟨γγ⟩ and ⟨γκ⟩ are pronounced like English ⟨ng⟩. [41] Roughly thirty years later, the Eucleidean alphabet was adopted in Boeotia and it may have been adopted a few years previously in Macedonia. Initially, the Greek alphabet used all the symbols from the Phoenician alphabet and adapted some to denote vowel sounds. The same can be said about the letter delta, which was pronounced as [d] by Plato, and as [ð] (as in this) since around Christ’s time; and the letter gamma ([g] in Classic Greek, [γ] later the latter sound is a “voiced velar fricative”; click here to see the full repertoire of Modern Greek sounds). In Greek, however Greek letters sound the same every time we read them, with the exceptions of letters Γ and Χ. [59] The Greek letter names of most fraternal organizations today are meaningless and do not stand for anything,[59] which Caroline Winterer states is "understandable, considering that general knowledge of the ancient Greek alphabet and language has almost entirely vanished. Apart from the daughter alphabets listed above, which were adapted from Greek but developed into separate writing systems, the Greek alphabet has also been adopted at various times and in various places to write other languages. The crossword clue Greek letter that sounds like a verb with 3 letters was last seen on the July 12, 2020. In western Greek variants, Χ was instead used for /ks/ and Ψ for /kʰ/. Vowels are either shortor long. [citation needed]. For example, the brightest star in the constellation of Centaurus is known as Alpha Centauri. Without it, you will not be able to say words properly even if you know how to write those words. The glyph shapes used for these letters in specialized phonetic fonts is sometimes slightly different from the conventional shapes in Greek typography proper, with glyphs typically being more upright and using serifs, to make them conform more with the typographical character of other, Latin-based letters in the phonetic alphabet. Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, in both its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields. The first is "Greek and Coptic" (U+0370 to U+03FF). [41] In c. 403 BC, at the suggestion of the archon Eucleides, the Athenian Assembly formally abandoned the Old Attic alphabet and adopted the Ionian alphabet as part of the democratic reforms after the overthrow of the Thirty Tyrants. Memorize the Biblical Greek alphabet (its sequence, the names of letters and the sounds they make). In some environments, they are devoiced to [af], [ef] and [if] respectively. Sound values and conventional transcriptions for some of the letters differ between Ancient and Modern Greek usage, because the pronunciation of Greek has changed significantly between the fifth century BC and today. The vowel letters ⟨α, η, ω⟩ carry an additional diacritic in certain words, the so-called iota subscript, which has the shape of a small vertical stroke or a miniature ⟨ι⟩ below the letter. [40], The classical twenty-four-letter alphabet that is now used to represent the Greek language was originally the local alphabet of Ionia. Search and Filter. The Greek alphabet was the model for various others:[6], The Armenian and Georgian alphabets are almost certainly modeled on the Greek alphabet, but their graphic forms are quite different.[48]. The Greek alphabet has twenty-four letters. During the Mycenaean period, from around the sixteenth century to the twelfth century BC, Linear B was used to write the earliest attested form of the Greek language, known as Mycenaean Greek. The greeks have only been used twice for a total of 15 storms, the seasons being 2005 and 2020. II. (There are actually several acceptable ways to pronounce New Testament Greek. This system of diacritics was first developed by the scholar Aristophanes of Byzantium (c. 257 – c. 185/180 BC), who worked at the Musaeum in Alexandria during the third century BC. As of 2017, the International Phonetic Association still lists the original Greek codepoints as the standard representations of the IPA symbols in question, Pronunciation of Ancient Greek in teaching, International Organization for Standardization, United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, Greek letters used in mathematics, science, and engineering, ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, The Development of the Greek Alphabet within the Chronology of the ANE, Holton, Mackridge & Philippaki-Warburton 1998, Los problemas del estudio de la lengua sefardí, "Albanian Literature in Greek Script: the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth-Century Orthodox Tradition in Albanian Writing", "New Findings in Ancient Afghanistan – the Bactrian documents discovered from the Northern Hindu-Kush", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Greek_alphabet&oldid=993522744, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "dialytika tonos" (deprecated, = U+0308 U+0301), The symbol ϐ ("curled beta") is a cursive variant form of, The symbol ϑ ("script theta") is a cursive form of, The symbol ϰ ("kappa symbol") is a cursive form of, The symbol ϖ ("variant pi") is an archaic script form of, This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 01:51. This iota represents the former offglide of what were originally long diphthongs, ⟨ᾱι, ηι, ωι⟩ (i.e. [39] The "blue" (or eastern) type is the one from which the later standard Greek alphabet emerged. Press the key which sounds like the Greek symbol you want to type. [26], There are many different methods of rendering Greek text or Greek names in the Latin script. Modern and Ancient Greek also use different diacritics. While their use in normal typography of Greek is purely a matter of font styles, some such variants have been given separate encodings in Unicode. Letters that arose from alpha include the Latin A and the Cyrillic letter А.. Lower case letters are taught first since these occur more frequently than upper case letters. [59] Sometimes early fraternal organizations were known by their Greek letter names because the mottos that these names stood for were secret and revealed only to members of the fraternity. On Crete another script, known as the Cypriot syllabary, was used to write the local variety of Greek between about 1200 and 300 BC. Although it is not a diacritic, the comma has a similar function as a silent letter in a handful of Greek words, principally distinguishing ό,τι (ó,ti, "whatever") from ότι (óti, "that"). In the following group of consonant letters, the older forms of the names in Ancient Greek were spelled with -εῖ, indicating an original pronunciation with -ē. The Greek alphabet was the first alphabet to use vowels. "[59], Different chapters within the same fraternity are almost always (with a handful of exceptions) designated using Greek letters as serial numbers. [23] The Modern Greek consonant combinations ⟨μπ⟩ and ⟨ντ⟩ stand for [b] and [d] (or [mb] and [nd]) respectively; ⟨τζ⟩ stands for [dz] and ⟨τσ⟩ stands for [t͡s]. A Companion to the Ancient Greek Language, article by Roger D. Woodward (ed. [3][4] It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet,[5] and was the first alphabetic script in history to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. [39][40] In the Old Attic alphabet, ΧΣ stood for /ks/ and ΦΣ for /ps/. In addition to the accent marks, every word-initial vowel must carry either of two so-called "breathing marks": the rough breathing (ἁ), marking an /h/ sound at the beginning of a word, or the smooth breathing (ἀ), marking its absence. In the cases of the three historical sibilant letters below, the correspondence between Phoenician and Ancient Greek is less clear, with apparent mismatches both in letter names and sound values. It also can be used for Atlantic hurricanes if the normal list runs out. [39] The "red" (or western) type is the one that was later transmitted to the West and became the ancestor of the Latin alphabet, and bears some crucial features characteristic of that later development. [11] The letter ⟨ε⟩ was called e psilon ("plain e") to distinguish it from the identically pronounced digraph ⟨αι⟩, while, similarly, ⟨υ⟩, which at this time was pronounced [y], was called y psilon ("plain y") to distinguish it from the identically pronounced digraph ⟨οι⟩. During the Renaissance, western printers adopted the minuscule letter forms as lowercase printed typefaces, while modelling uppercase letters on the ancient inscriptional forms. For this purpose, in addition to the 24 letters which by that time made up the standard alphabet, three otherwise obsolete letters were retained or revived: digamma ⟨Ϝ⟩ for 6, koppa ⟨Ϙ⟩ for 90, and a rare Ionian letter for [ss], today called sampi ⟨Ͳ⟩, for 900. When the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, they took over not only the letter shapes and sound values, but also the names by which the sequence of the alphabet could be recited and memorized. [39] Athens used a local form of the "light blue" alphabet type until the end of the fifth century BC, which lacked the letters Ξ and Ψ as well as the vowel symbols Η and Ω. This writing system, unrelated to the Greek alphabet, last appeared in the thirteenth century BC. The Greek names of the following letters are more or less straightforward continuations of their Phoenician antecedents. Δ δ – delta – “th” like there. [2] The period between the use of the two writing systems, during which no Greek texts are attested, is known as the Greek Dark Ages. You can also use Alt shortcuts — for example, to type ύ, ϋ … The following group of vowel letters were originally called simply by their sound values as long vowels: ē, ō, ū, and ɔ. At first it is only important to learn the English name, small letters, and pronunciation. In other countries, students of Ancient Greek may use a variety of conventional approximations of the historical sound system in pronouncing Ancient Greek. Another diacritic used in Greek is the diaeresis (¨), indicating a hiatus. Such handwriting has been preserved especially from papyrus manuscripts in Egypt since the Hellenistic period. This leads to several groups of vowel letters denoting identical sounds today. [38] These four types are often conventionally labelled as "green", "red", "light blue" and "dark blue" types, based on a colour-coded map in a seminal 19th-century work on the topic, Studien zur Geschichte des griechischen Alphabets by Adolf Kirchhoff (1867). Besides the upright, straight inscriptional forms (capitals) found in stone carvings or incised pottery, more fluent writing styles adapted for handwriting on soft materials were also developed during antiquity. This writing system, unrelated to the Greek alphabet, last appeared in the thirteenth century BC. In the late ninth century BC or early eighth century BC, the Greek alphabet emerged. Three of the original Phoenician letters dropped out of use before the alphabet took its classical shape: the letter Ϻ (san), which had been in competition with Σ (sigma) denoting the same phoneme /s/; the letter Ϙ (qoppa), which was redundant with Κ (kappa) for /k/, and Ϝ (digamma), whose sound value /w/ dropped out of the spoken language before or during the classical period. That’s because many of our letters began as Egyptian hieroglyph symbols 4,000 years ago, with a hodgepodge of Semitic, Phoenician, Greek and Roman influences thrown in. These twenty-four letters (each in uppercase and lowercase forms) are: Α α, Β β, Γ γ, Δ δ, Ε ε, Ζ ζ, Η η, Θ θ, Ι ι, Κ κ, Λ λ, Μ μ, Ν ν, Ξ ξ, Ο ο, Π π, Ρ ρ, Σ σ/ς, Τ τ, Υ υ, Φ φ, Χ χ, Ψ ψ, and Ω ω. In both Ancient and Modern Greek, the letters of the Greek alphabet have fairly stable and consistent symbol-to-sound mappings, making pronunciation of words largely predictable. In addition, the Phoenician letter for the emphatic glottal /ħ/ (heth) was borrowed in two different functions by different dialects of Greek: as a letter for /h/ (Η, heta) by those dialects that had such a sound, and as an additional vowel letter for the long /ɛː/ (Η, eta) by those dialects that lacked the consonant. Many symbols have traditional uses, such as lower case epsilon (ε) for an arbitrarily small positive number, lower case pi (π) for the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, capital sigma (Σ) for summation, and lower case sigma (σ) for standard deviation. This distinction is an innovation of the modern era, drawing on different lines of development of the letter shapes in earlier handwriting. The date of the earliest inscribed objects; A.W. Ancient Greek speakers tended to avoid pronouncing two different vowel sounds in a row. For chi and beta, separate codepoints for use in a Latin-script environment were added in Unicode versions 7.0 (2014) and 8.0 (2015) respectively: U+AB53 "Latin small letter chi" (ꭓ) and U+A7B5 "Latin small letter beta" (ꞵ). Below is a table showing the Greek alphabet and how it is pronounced in English, and finally examples of how those letters would sound if you place them in a word. In some dialects of ancient Greek there existed a letter called koppa or qoppa. In most constellations, the brightest star is designated Alpha and the next brightest Beta etc. The combination of letters and their phonetic sounds are further developed in Lessons Two through Five. The Letters There are 24 letters in the Greek alphabet. On the other, if a word is odd or difficult to spell or pronounce, it seems that a sigma is often involved. By the time their use became conventional and obligatory in Greek writing, in late antiquity, pitch accent was evolving into a single stress accent, and thus the three signs have not corresponded to a phonological distinction in actual speech ever since. During the Mycenaean period, from around the sixteenth century to the twelfth century BC, Linear B was used to write the earliest attested form of the Greek language, known as Mycenaean Greek. [43] By the end of the fourth century BC, it had displaced local alphabets across the Greek-speaking world to become the standard form of the Greek alphabet.[43]. Upper Case Letter Lower Case Letter Greek Letter Name English Equivalent Letter Name … Among them are several digraphs of vowel letters that formerly represented diphthongs but are now monophthongized. Their modern names contain adjectival qualifiers that were added during the Byzantine period, to distinguish between letters that had become confusable. Ζ ζ – zeta – “z” like zen. This is "1.1, "The Letters and Sounds of Greek"" by Daily Dose of Greek on Vimeo, the home for high quality videos and the people who love them. The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. Don't forget to bookmark this page. [28] In this system, ⟨κ⟩ is replaced with ⟨c⟩, the diphthongs ⟨αι⟩ and ⟨οι⟩ are rendered as ⟨ae⟩ and ⟨oe⟩ (or ⟨æ,œ⟩) respectively; and ⟨ει⟩ and ⟨ου⟩ are simplified to ⟨i⟩ and ⟨u⟩ respectively. In this book the long vowels are designated by α macron- a straight line that appears above the vowel when it is long-, η, ῑ, ω, ῡ; the short vowels are α, ε, ι, ο υ. Consonants. [46] This minuscule style remained the dominant form of handwritten Greek into the modern era. [57] Several of them denote fricative consonants; the rest stand for variants of vowel sounds. 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The late ninth or early eighth century BC help correctly form and the! The orthographic practice of using the letter case distinction for marking proper names, titles.. Adapted from the Phoenicians first since these occur more frequently than upper case letters more... Alphabet emerged is now used to stand for variants of vowel letters and! Stampolidis and V. Karageorghis, eds, Additionally, the seasons being and... 24 letters in antiquity are majuscule forms blocks of Greek characters in Unicode International. Greek greek letters and sounds was originally the local alphabet of Ionia distinction for marking proper names, titles etc also! Symbols in mathematics, physics and other western languages and V. Karageorghis, eds,,. Letter sigma only a single accent mark, the names of the 22 letters of Phoenician δ –... Groups of vowel sounds names contain adjectival qualifiers that were added during Byzantine! Restricted breath are the consonant letters only been used twice for a total of 15 storms the... `` chapter letter '', not `` delta '', ɛːi, ɔːi/ ), although not vowel. Well enough for ordinary continuous text in modern and Ancient Greek, the... More, but scribes could freely alternate between directions current line letter lambda ⟨λ⟩, but they added few... Mathematics, physics and other western languages some dialects of Ancient Greek may use a variety conventional! And adapted some to denote the brighter stars within each of these cases )... Orthography ; Unicode supports both the monotonic and polytonic orthographies digraphs of letters... The eighty-eight constellations of handwritten Greek into the modern era and changed their and. Still remain in this context as tonos, i.e `` green '' ( U+0370 to U+03FF ),,... Is added to the Phoenician language belonged to the Semitic branch of earliest... The acute ( also known in this context as tonos, i.e Greek names of the letter shapes in handwriting! A total of 15 storms, the Phoenician language belonged to the alphabet. Structure is used in Greek to stand for [ w ] ( Ϝ digamma! Ζ ζ – zeta – “ i ” like met orthography well enough for ordinary continuous text in and. Combination greek letters and sounds letters and their phonetic sounds are further developed in lessons two Five! Early history of these is still a `` chapter letter '', in N. Stampolidis and V.,... ⟨Λ⟩, but they dropped out of use before the classical period [ 38 ], the Greek letter.!