Deighton and Grayson (1995) offer a counterintuitive spin on this interpretive agent viewpoint by analyzing how consumers willingly become complicit in their own seduction by marketplace narratives. Ritson and Elliott (1999) show that advertisements often become a social resource for humor, social bonding, and conversational interactions in which consumers collectively critique and rework the meanings of a given campaign. Finally, building on the idea of cultural capital (Allen 2002; Holt 1998), CCT could readily pursue a culturally informed resource-based theory of the customer that dovetails in some ways with resource-based theories of the firm (Hunt and Morgan 1995, 1996). 2002; Muñiz and O'Guinn 2000), consumer lifestyles (Holt 1997; Thompson 1996), retail experiences (Kozinets et al. Global in perspective and drawing on both theory and empirical research, the journal reflects the need to engage critically with modern consumer culture … ——— (1988), “Relativism Revidivus: In Defense of Critical Relativism,” Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (December), 403–6. Holt (2004) shows how longitudinal changes in advertising campaigns for iconic brands, such as Bud and Mountain Dew (and their respective failures and successes), are related to specific cultural tensions and economic anxieties that dominate particular historical moments. Over the years, many nebulous epithets characterizing this research tradition have come into play (i.e., relativist, postpositivist, interpretivist, humanistic, naturalistic, postmodern), all more obfuscating than clarifying. Kates, Steven M. (2002), “The Protean Quality of Subcultural Consumption: An Ethnographic Account of Gay Consumers,” Journal of Consumer Research, 29 (December), 383–99. By highlighting activists' quasi-evangelical quest to instigate significant changes in the moral outlook of mainstream consumers (who are deemed to be part of the problem), this study also extends prior theorizations that construe consumer activism as primarily motivated by an ethos of good citizenship and an antinomy toward corporations. South American nationality is often expressed through public performances as crystalizations of ‘authentic’ local-level or regional cultures. Deighton, John and Kent Grayson (1995), “Marketing and Seduction: Building Exchange Relationships by Managing Social Consensus,” Journal of Consumer Research, 21 (March), 660–76. It is interesting that few of these interactions actually instigate pressures to buy the product or brand advertised. 6, ed. In this spirit, Kozinets (2001) explores how fan identity is constituted in relationship to utopian ideals and the cooptation of those ideas by corporate media; Belk et al. Their predisposition to explore the full range of global cultures, to seek out new styles, or recycle traditions, and search for the exotic through travel makes them have dispositions that could be labeled postmodern, through their aesthetic interest in playing with signs and cultures. Thus, pursuit of specific bodily “norms” is integral to economic consumption and to capitalism (Priestley 2003). With a growing middle class has emerged the beginnings of a civil society which is likely to engender a greater consciousness of civil liberties and human rights. Karin M. Ekström and Helene Brembeck, Oxford: Berg, 45–64. In … Price, Linda L. and Eric J. Arnould (1999), “Commercial Friendships: Service Provider-Client Relationships in Social Context,” Journal of Marketing, 63 (October), 38–56. Rook, Dennis W. (1985), “The Ritual Dimension of Consumer Behavior,” Journal of Consumer Research, 12 (December), 251–64. Lutz, Richard (1989), “Presidential Address: Positivism, Naturalism, and Pluralism in Consumer Research; Paradigms in Paradise,” in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. In another vein, postassimilationist consumer research suggests that ethnic identities have, in some sense, become hypercultural in that the culture of origin is socially reconstructed as something consumable (costume, foods, crafts, music) as part of attempts to assert an anchoring for identity in fluid social contexts (Askegaard, Arnould, and Kjeldgaard 2005; Oswald 1999). Sherry, John F. and Robert V. Kozinets (2001), “Qualitative Inquiry in Marketing and Consumer Research,” in Kellogg on Marketing, ed. N.E. These studies point to a need to explore consumer understandings of history and temporality more generally. A second promising area is the temporality of consumption experiences, a topic instigated through interest in nostalgia (Holbrook 1993) and reinvigorated under the rubric of retroscapes and retrobranding (Brown and Sherry 2003; Brown et al. Near this end are the ‘no place’ spaces of airports, chain hotels, and resorts, which also seek to offer the insecure customer, who has no time or inclination to browse or experiment, predictability and reliability. Rather, it refers to a family of theoretical perspectives that address the dynamic relationships between consumer actions, the marketplace, and cultural meanings. Since the turn of the century a number of measures have been taken to boost rural income: the elimination of agricultural taxes in 2004 as well as increased subsidies. 1988; Belk and Coon 1993; Deighton and Grayson 1995; Peñaloza and Gilly 1999). Given this commitment to multimethod investigations of consumption phenomena in natural settings, it is ironic that CCT research is misperceived in some disciplinary quarters as a sphere of creative expression, voyeurism, entertaining esoterica, and sonorous introspection of limited relevance to consumer research's broader theoretical projects or the pragmatic interests of managers and policy makers. Peñaloza, Lisa (1994), “Atravesando Fronteras/Border Crossings: A Critical Ethnographic Study of the Consumer Acculturation of Mexican Immigrants,” Journal of Consumer Research, 21 (June), 32–53. For example, Michalko (2002 p 22) observes that ‘the contemporary obsession with health as well as with the purification and beautification of the body that defines the good life generates a particularly negative view of disability’. 16, ed. To close with an anthropological insight, scientific culture as an organization of diversity creates myriad situations in which “people must deal with other peoples' meanings … at times, perhaps, one can just ignore them. On the other hand, they also include sites in which every effort is made to give goods or a brand a quasi-sacred significance, as for example we find in the Nike Museum in Chicago, where trainers are displayed like art objects. Gift giving provides an exemplary case of a whole class of consumption phenomena whose study emerged from this shift in research aims (Belk 1976; Joy 2001; Mick and DeMoss 1990; Ruth, Otnes, and Brunel 1999; Sherry 1983; Wooten 2000). There have nevertheless been barriers to an increase in individual spending power, among them domestic interest rates, a high rate of personal savings and an as yet nascent social security system. This CCT is not a unified, grand theory, nor does it aspire to such nomothetic claims. As will be discussed in the later sections, diversified consumption is still largely an urban phenomenon but the 12th Five Year Plan priorities are intended to increase the spending power of rural residents. Witkowski, Terrence H. (1989), “Colonial Consumers in Revolt: Buyer Values in Behavior during the Nonimportation Movement, 1764–1776,” Journal of Consumer Research 16 (September), 216–26. From this standpoint, disciplinary diversity is a problem because it fosters differing camps, each pursuing their own particularistic questions, whose knowledge claims are unlikely to coalesce. Rather than factors like moral character and personality, physical attributes and the approval of peers became paramount in determining girls’ self-esteem. Source: Accenture COVID-19 Consumer Research, conducted April 2–6, N = 1,118 respondents working from home. The caveat must, however, be added that expenditure on residences may stimulate purchasing of such household items as furniture and whiteware. ——— (1987b), “Presidential Address: Happy Thought,” Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Response to these trends has been reflected in the priorities of the current 12th Five Year Plan (2011−15) which extends the previous plan’s focus on the creation of a harmonious society (hexie shehui) based on balanced growth, the implication being that China’s economic success had its costs in terms of an increasing urban−rural divide, increasing social and income inequality and environmental degradation. Thus, consumer culture denotes a social arrangement in which the relations between lived culture and social resources, and between meaningful ways of life and the symbolic and material resources on which they depend, are mediated through markets. Thompson, Craig J., William B. Locander, and Howard R. Pollio (1989), “Putting Consumer Experience Back into Consumer Research: The Philosophy and Method of Existential-Phenomenology,” Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (September), 133–46. As there is no private land ownership as such, local governments, with the connivance of village leaders, have requisitioned land for development rather than farming. Sentilles, K. Callahan, in Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance, 2012. Frank, Thomas (1997), The Conquest of Cool: Business Culture, Counterculture, and the Rise of Hip Consumerism, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ——— (1981), “Interpreting Consumer Mythology: A Structural Approach to Consumer Behavior,” Journal of Marketing, 45 (Summer), 49–61. If the measure is not the quantity of goods and durability of structures but the quality of life that provided for physical well-being but used resources economically, the Japanese compared favorably with the British in the nineteenth century (Hanley 1997). A "consumer culture" is one whose economy is defined by the buying and spending of consumers. To address this problematic, consumer culture theorists investigate the processes by which consumption choices and behaviors are shaped by social class hierarchies (Allen 2002; Holt 1997, 1998; Wallendorf 2001); gender (Bristor and Fischer 1993; Dobscha and Ozanne 2001; Fischer and Arnold 1990; Thompson 1996; Thompson and Haytko 1997; Thompson, Locander, and Pollio 1990); ethnicity (Belk 1992; Mehta and Belk 1991; Reilly and Wallendorf 1987; Wallendorf and Reilly 1983); and families, households, and other formal groups (Moore-Shay, Wilkie, and Lutz 2002; Wallendorf and Arnould 1991; Ward and Reingen 1990). ——— (1988), “Possessions and the Extended Self,” Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (September), 139–68. First and foremost among these myths is that consumer culture theorists study particular contexts as ends in themselves; therefore, the argument goes, CCT contributes little to theory development in consumer research (Lehmann 1999; Simonson et al. ——— (1994b), “Images in Advertising: The Need for a Theory of Visual Rhetoric,” Journal of Consumer Research, 21 (September), 252–73. This methodological predilection follows from the aims that drive CCT rather than from a passion for qualitative data or vivid description per se. Consumer culture theory has its historical roots in calls for consumer researchers to broaden their focus to investigate the neglected experiential, social, and cultural dimensions of consumption in context (Belk 1987a, 1987b; Holbrook and Hirschman 1982). R.M. They include the following: What normative messages do commercial media transmit about consumption (Hirschman 1988)? In one husband and wife couple studied he collected fire engines, African hunting trophies, and Western American artwork, while she collected mouse replicas. Traditionally social science has tended to regard consumption as a … 2003). For example, Mick and Buhl (1992) profile the way in which consumers' life themes and life projects shape their readings of advertisements. Whether characterized as a subculture of consumption (Kates 2002; Schouten and McAlexander 1995), a consumption world (Holt 1995), a consumption microculture (Thompson and Troester 2002), or a culture of consumption (Kozinets 2001), this genre of CCT builds upon Maffesoli's (1996) ideas on neotribalism. It is possible to envisage a continuum here, ranging from sites in which standardization of infrastructure and product are to the fore, where people are processed in and out rapidly, to sites where the consumer is invited to linger and have an experience, where consumption involves consuming the setting, the excitement, and aesthetic pleasures of discovery of novelty. ——— (1990), “Secular Immortality and the American Ideology of Affluence,” Journal of Consumer Research, 17 (June), 31–42. The ex-President of Peru, Alberto Fujimori, is the son of Japanese immigrants, and the Ecuadorian ex-President, Jamil Mahuad Witt, is the son of Lebanese and German immigrants. Thomas K. Srull, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 1–8. Sheth, Jagdish N. (1985), “Presidential Address: Broadening the Horizons of ACR and Consumer Research,” in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. ——— (1991), “Postmodern Alternatives: The Interpretive Turn in Consumer Research,” in Handbook of Consumer Research, ed. ——— (2001), “Consuming the American West: Animating Cultural Meaning at a Stock Show and Rodeo,” Journal of Consumer Research, 28 (December), 369–98. (2003), Time, Space, and the Market: Retroscapes Rising, London: M. E. Sharpe. Hall, Stuart (1993), “Encoding, Decoding,” in The Cultural Studies Reader, ed. But every now and then, they do. In 1933, the journalist Henry James Forman concluded that females between the ages of 8 and 19 attended the movies an average of 46 times a year in the 1920s. Kozinets, Robert V. (2001), “Utopian Enterprise: Articulating the Meaning of Star Trek's Culture of Consumption,” Journal of Consumer Research, 28 (June), 67–89. The nations of South America vary greatly one from the other, and the salient characteristics of their respective modernities also vary. Maffesoli, Michel (1996), The Time of Tribes, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. The dynamic, transformative balance between centralization and diversity that began in early colonial times continues into the beginning of the twenty-first century. Holbrook, Morris B. and Elizabeth C. Hirschman (1982), “The Experiential Aspects of Consumption: Consumer, Fantasies, Feelings, and Fun,” Journal of Consumer Research, 9 (September), 132–40. Belk, Russell W., John F. Sherry Jr., and Melanie Wallendorf (1988), “A Naturalistic Inquiry into Buyer and Seller Behavior at a Swap Meet,” Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (March), 449–70. Yet, the effects of advertising are often anything but clear or easily detected. In sum, CCT is an interdisciplinary research tradition that has advanced knowledge about consumer culture (in all its heterogeneous manifestations) and generated empirically grounded findings and theoretical innovations that are relevant to a broad constituency in the base social science disciplines, public policy arenas, and managerial sectors. Perpetuation of the belief that people – bodies – must appear youthful in order to have social value has overtly economic implications, fuelling the demand for cosmetics, plastic surgery, slimming regimens and exercise equipment. However, these films rarely transgressed, and thereby policed, the line of respectability. Belk, Russell W. (1976), “It's the Thought That Counts: A Signed Digraph Analysis of Gift-Giving,” Journal of Consumer Research, 3 (December), 155–62. Borgmann, Albert (2000), “The Moral Complexion of Consumption,” Journal of Consumer Research 26 (March), 418–22. In this work, consumers are conceived of as identity seekers and makers. Brown, Stephen and John F. Sherry Jr., eds. 23, ed. Search for other works by this author on: © 2005 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc. Beliefs about Whether Spending Implies Wealth, How You Estimate Calories Matters: Calorie Estimation Reversals, Demythologizing (What Consumer Culture Theory Is Not), Illuminating (What Consumer Culture Theory Is), Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Working class adoption of business education, A sociological theory of tacit consumer choice, Possessions in a less-developed country (Niger), A cultural theorization of preference formation and the diffusion of innovations, Defining extended leisure service encounters and its implications for customer satisfaction, Consumers' intergenerational transfer of possessions, Individual and familial identity formation processes; the dynamics of inalienable wealth, Formation and structuration of a moral economy; age and gender role definition and enactment in consumer society, Consumer fantasy, the ritual impulse, and the reformulation of social roles via the enactment of consumer fantasies, Consumer relationships to market structures; sociocultural dynamics of exchange relationships, A dynamic model of consumer motivations and cultural account of consumer risk taking behaviors, Rethinking the origin and development of brand knowledge and involvement, Consumers who lost money in the Chondra-Za mail order scam, An empirically based theorization of consumer self-seduction, A social relationship model of consumer-brand relationships, Thanksgiving dinners; ordinary family dinners, Cultural rituals; construction, maintenance, and negotiation of family relationships through consumption, Materialism and self-identity in cases of involuntary disposition, Toward a theory of the lived experience of compulsive consumption behavior, Consumer lifestyle choices in a small town/rural setting, The role of consumption practices in sustaining symbolic boundaries between social groups, as formed by complex intersections of sociological collectivities, A post-Cartesian theory of embodied consumer experiences, Oppositional consumption practices and the contesting of gender distinctions, Theorizing how consumers find Utopian meanings in the commercialized sphere of popular culture and explicating the ideological constitution of fandom, Investigating the dialectic between consumer resistance and capitalist ideologies, Contributing to a postassimilationist, poststructural theory of ethnicity, Danish brothers' interpretations of advertisements, A theorization of how consumers interpret multiple meanings of advertisements depending on their life themes and projects, Consumers reports of self-gifting occasions, A theorization of nonrational consumer purchase decision and the role of their consumption in self-identity maintenance, A cultural theory of community in postmodern society and the role of brands in community formation, The impact of consumer culture and consumerist ideologies on religious norms and experiences of the sacred, Consumers' active process in the coproduction of marketplace meanings and the role of commodified cultural myths in mediating marketplace relationships, British high school students talking about advertisements, A theory of the social usages of advertising, A theorization of consumer's commercialized, nonlinear self-presentation in cyberspace, The structure and dynamics of consumer subcultures and reworking of identity, A microcultural theorization of consumer belief and value systems and their diffusion through social networks, The gendering of consumer lifestyles and its impact on preferences, Men's and women's experiences of fashion and body image, Consumers active use marketplace ideologies via resistance interpretations that play off ideological contradictions and paradoxes, and the ideological mapping of their identity projects via brand meanings and fashion styles, An analysis of cosmopolitanism as a consumer ideology and its role in the shaping of consumer goals. 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