It is found in many different food products and can be identified by checking the ingredients list. The names it may be listed under include: Common foods include soft drinks, marinades and dressings, cake mix, frosting, popcorn, food coloring, fast foods, bread and dairy products (6, 35). Overall, apart from people with allergies and one case of excessive consumption, there have been no other reported cases of negative or toxic effects of propylene glycol in foods. For breathing difficulties, oxygen may be necessary. There have been no reports of neurological changes due to propylene glycol in foods. As for the latter, we see many ingredient lists with PEG in them, so now we know that PEG is really just short for another type of glycol polymer. If you have an allergy to propylene glycol, it is important to let your doctor or pharmacist know about it before taking certain medications. Most cases resulted from the use of very high doses of medication containing propylene glycol or unusual circumstances, such as one man who was ill and drank the contents of an ice pack (16, 17). While these reports may be concerning, it is important to note that in both these cases, toxicity occurred due to a high dosage of medication in a vulnerable age group. This enzyme is essential for the breakdown of propylene glycol (1, 9, 20). Additionally, 16 patients of a neurology clinic were given 402 mg of propylene glycol per pound (887 mg/kg) three times per day for three days. While propylene glycol is generally considered safe, you may still choose to avoid it if you are allergic or you simply want to reduce your intake. In foods, propylene glycol may be used in the following ways (3, 4, 5): Propylene glycol is commonly found in many packaged foods, such as drink mixes, dressings, dried soups, cake mix, soft drinks, popcorn, food coloring, fast foods, bread and dairy products (6). It is both water and oil-soluble and can have moisture-binding and antimicrobial properties (Source). In the US, it can be used as a direct and indirect food additive. This had led to health concerns about possible toxic effects from eating foods that contain it. It is a colorless, odorless, slightly syrupy liquid that is a bit thicker than water. Guar gum is a common additive used in processed foods. Propylene glycol is designated as a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) additive by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is widely used in commercial formulations of foods, drugs, and cosmetics (Morshed et al. Systemic dermatitis has been reported after eating foods and taking medications and intravenous drugs that contain propylene glycol (33, 34, 35). People who already have skin conditions or sensitive skin are at particular risk of contact allergy to this additive (6). In addition, propylene glycol can cause irritant contact dermatitis. Phenoxyethanol can have an effect on the brain and the central nervous system. One study of 38 sensitive people given propylene glycol by mouth found that 15 of them developed a rash within 3 to 16 hours (31). Ethylene glycol is highly toxic to humans and is not used in food products. FIRST-AID MEASURES If breathing is difficult, remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. After ingesting a food containing propylene glycol, about 45% of it will be excreted by the kidneys unchanged. It is harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through skin, especially to nursing mothers or infants. © 2005-2020 Healthline Media a Red Ventures Company. Although the safety hazards associated with butylene glycol are very well understood and studied, people with very sensitive skin may find butylene glycol irritating (at higher concentrations). Pentylene Glycol is synthetic humectant used in cosmetics and beauty products that is also secondarily used as a solvent and preservative. If you have any of these conditions, you could have dangerous or life-threatening side effects from polyethylene glycol 3350. There's no nutritional value, so why does your almond and soy milk have carrageenan? Critically ill patients often have impaired kidney or liver function and may also have an increased risk from prolonged or high-dose drug treatments. The US and European food authorities have declared it as generally safe for use in foods. Since the substance is able to optimally bind water and thus supply the skin with specific moisture, it is ideal in everyday skincare. The general population may be exposed to propylene glycol. The American Contact Dermatitis Society has named propylene glycol as the 2018 Allergen of the Year (32). This article investigates what propylene glycol is, why it is used and whether it is dangerous to your health. Use: Pentylene glycol is a very widely used moizturing agent, also showing interesting antimicrobial boosting properties. It is also used in injectable medications, like lorazepam, and in some creams and ointments that are applied to the skin, such as corticosteroids (2, 7). A fresh, whole foods diet will naturally contain lower amounts of this additive. The estimated exposure to propylene glycol through foods in the US is 15 mg per pound (34 mg/kg) per day (9). Everything you need to know about the cosmetic ingredient PENTYLENE GLYCOL (Pentylene glycol), CAS number 5343-92-0, family (Glycol), functions (Skin conditioning, Solvent). JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. Some websites claim that propylene glycol increases the risk of heart disease and heart attacks. There are several helpful websites that can help you identify which products contain it. However, the majority of foods containing it are highly processed junk foods. Unlike its dangerous and frequently lethal cousin, ethylene glycol, PG is easily metabolized by the liver into normal products of the citric acid metabolic cycle, which are completely nontoxic to the body. Minasolve is a large producer of synthetic pentylene glycol of odouless and colourless quality for the cosmetic industry. There have been some reports of propylene glycol causing brain-related symptoms. 1988). A controlled, double-blind comparative study was conducted to evaluate the treatment of atopic dermatitis with hydrocortisone and 1,5-pentanediol. See solvent Back to Ingredient Dictionary. For example, in one study, 19% of critical patients being treated with the drug lorazepam were observed to have signs of propylene glycol toxicity (19). Ethylene glycol is considered a poison, and ingestion requires serious medical attention. In one report, an 8-month-old child suffered loss of heart function and subsequent brain damage after being treated with silver sulfadiazine cream that contained propylene glycol. Propylene glycol is sometimes confused with ethylene glycol, as both have been used in antifreeze due to their low melting points. Patients with atopic dermatitis were treated 2x/day with either 1% hydrocortisone (n=31) or 1% hydrocortisone with 25% 1,5-pentanediol (n=32) in a cream formulation for 6 weeks. These symptoms disappeared within 6 hours (31). Here’s what you need to know. So let's narrow our focus to the ones most likely to pop up in your products. Animal studies also demonstrate that very high doses of propylene glycol can rapidly decrease heart rate, cause low blood pressure and even cause the heart to stop (25, 26). While these populations may be at increased risk of toxicity in the case of very high exposure from medication, there is no research indicating any harm from the amounts found in the diet. Compare this to sugar, which has a lethal dose of 13.5 grams per pound (29.7 g/kg), or salt, which is just 1.4 grams per pound (3 g/kg) in rats (11, 12, 13). Pentylene Glycol is synthetic humectant used in cosmetics and beauty products that is also secondarily used as a solvent and preservative. About the Experts. Paula Begoun is the best-selling author of 20 books about skincare and makeup. Acidosis occurs when the body cannot get rid of the acid fast enough. Most food allergies are caused by just 8 foods. However, recent studies have been published showing Pentylene Glycol to be an irritant that causes contact dermatitis, suggesting this skin care product ingredient could be an emerging allergen. The amount of propylene glycol found in a normal diet is not associated with any heart problems in children or adults. However, it is another ingredient that is responsible for the classification of antifreeze as dangerous, ethylene glycol. If liquid propylene glycol is spilled on the skin, it may cause skin irritation and burning. They take up to three times as long to remove propylene glycol from their bodies and may be particularly sensitive to the effects on the central nervous system (9, 20, 21). This article reviews whether mayo is safe when…. Safety Measures/Side Effects: The Cosmetic Database rates Pentylene Glycol as a low hazard ingredient and only notes studies done in the 1970s that warn that high doses have shown neuro and organ toxicity in animals, as well as skin irritation. Additionally, it is used in industrial products like paint, antifreeze, artificial smoke and e-cigarettes (2, 6). Propylene glycol is non-toxic when ingested, even in reasonably large amounts. It has not been found to cause cancer, damage genes or interfere with fertility or reproduction. However, these are not the same substance. In one case, a woman with epilepsy developed repetitive convulsions and stupor due to propylene glycol poisoning from an unknown source (29). It is also possible to have an allergy to butylene glycol – however this is very rare. Additionally, it can dissolve some substances better than water and is also good at retaining moisture. Inspiring thoughts and women who are aging gracefully. The 1,2-glycols are characterized by the presence of two hydroxyl or alcohol groups on the first and second attachment points along the carbon chain. The Surprising Truth. This material is not classified dangerous good according to international transportation regulations (ADR/RID … However, toxicity is very rare. You can also check the labels of cosmetic products, though avoiding it may be difficult. It gives soft drinks a tangy flavor and prevents the growth of mold and bacteria. However, as current intakes are estimated to be above the recommended level, it may be wise to reduce dietary sources where you can, especially as the primary sources are highly processed foods. Caprylyl glycol and pentylene glycol are also used as preser-vatives. It begins to build up in the blood, which interferes with proper functioning (10). Particulates not otherwise regulated, respirable fraction: 5 mg/m³ One woman with kidney damage was treated for short breath and throat swelling with lorazepam. The very best to choose from for your skin concerns. In fact, between 0.8 and 3.5% of people are estimated to have a skin allergy to propylene glycol (32). The main sign of toxicity is central nervous system depression. pentylene glycol. The bigger molecules have less application in cosmetics but are still used as solvents and carriers. In this case, a rash may develop in sensitive people when their skin comes into contact with products that contain it, such as shampoo or moisturizer (6). An alternative can usually be found. Xanthan gum is a common food additive that has some people worried, while others claim it has health benefits. There are case reports of premature infants injected with large doses of vitamins containing propylene glycol that resulted in seizures (22, 23). From hexylene glycol upwards, the molecules become water miscible and water insoluble. There is only one documented case of toxicity caused by food. By consuming a fresh, healthy, whole foods diet, you can avoid most sources without too much trouble. Not classified as dangerous in the meaning of transport regulations. The TIA community consists of our trusted reviewers. You should not use this medicine if you have a bowel obstruction or intestinal blockage. Pregnant women, children and infants under four years of age have lower levels of an enzyme known as alcohol dehydrogenase. However, it never exist in petroleum products. This makes it very useful as a food additive, so it can be found in a wide variety of processed foods and drinks (2). In another case, a 15-month-old child was given oral doses of vitamin C dissolved in propylene glycol. What is Pentylene Glycol? Maltodextrin is one of those widely used but little-understood food additives. Very high amounts of propylene glycol were used in both of these studies, yet another study found effects at smaller doses. They have a better dissolving power and less stickiness compared to glycerine. Butylene glycol (more often 1,4-butylene glycol) can be found in some plant products like cocoa butter. 44 Formulations containing PENTYLENE GLYCOL Skin Care: "Nobel Concept" Autophagy Activation Cream with Extremosio™ by Nagase This "Nobel Concept" Autophagy Activation Cream with Extremosio™ induces autophagy in your skin cells to renew cell components and repair cell damages. Read more. Pentylene Glycol, plant based, natural, palm-free, Ecocert and Cosmos certified INCI Name:Pentylene Glycol CAS # 5343-92-0 EC # 226-285-3 Glycols are known to be excellent moisturizers, solvents and antimicrobial ingredients (preservative boosters). Seizures have also been observed in infants who developed toxicity from injectable medications (22). Rating: Good; Categories: Texture Enhancer; A synthetic skin-replenishing agent and solvent. She is known worldwide as The Cosmetics Cop and creator of Paula’s Choice Skincare. PENTYLENE GLYCOL (30-3811) View SDS. Propylene glycol is “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (8). The Dangers of Propylene Glycol 1. In Europe, it is only allowed to be used in food as a solvent for colors, emulsifiers, antioxidants and enzymes, with up to 0.45 grams per pound (1 gram/kg) allowed in the final food product (9). Health Effects of Propylene Glycol There is a lot of conflicting information about the dangers of propylene glycol. This can lead to a buildup of propylene glycol and lactic acid in the bloodstream, causing symptoms of toxicity (9, 15). Free shipping on all domestic orders over $49, The honest truth about beauty & personal care products. 20294-76-2 OR Caprylyl Glycol OR 1117-86-8 OR Decylene Glycol OR 1119-86-4 OR Pentylene Glycol OR 5343-92-0 OR 1,2-Butanediol OR 1,2-Butylene Glycol OR 584-03-2 OR 1,2-Hexanediol OR 6920-22-5 OR C14-18 Glycol OR Ethylene Glycol Fatty Acid Ester OR C15-18 Glycol … Butylene glycol makes other ingredients less likely to stick together, giving makeup and self-care products a fluid and even consistency. Here's a look at the evidence on…. Do not use polyethylene glycol 3350 more than once per day. For people with allergic dermatitis, it is best to avoid all sources of propylene glycol. Some websites state it is safe, while others claim it causes heart attacks, kidney and liver failure and brain problems. While his symptoms were also due to the alcohol, some could be attributed to the propylene glycol (10). Symptoms include a slower rate of breathing, decreased heart rate and loss of consciousness (14). Be an Informed Shopper Today Now that you’ve learned more about propylene glycol, you have … Pentylene Glycol is synthetic humectant used in cosmetics and beauty products that is also secondarily used as a solvent and preservative. Of course petroleum-derivated products can be used in Butylene Glycol synthesis, but it’s the same with practically all organic molecules including vitamins and other vital and natural compounds. Cellulose gum is used as a thickening agent in many food products. This article examines its benefits and side effects to determine how it affects your health. The course of ethylene glycol toxicity is classically divided into three broad overlapping categories of adverse health effects. Debra Rose Wilson, Ph.D., MSN, R.N., IBCLC, AHN-BC, CHT, Is Guar Gum Healthy or Unhealthy? Propylene glycol is a synthetic food additive that belongs to the same chemical group as alcohol. Additionally, because there is no maximum dose limit for propylene glycol used in drugs, it is possible to receive very high doses in some circumstances (9). While these symptoms may sound scary, it should be emphasized that many different medications and substances can cause similar symptoms when ingested or given in quantities that cause toxicity. On the other hand, in people with kidney disease or liver disease, this process may not be as efficient. The most common skin reaction, or dermatitis, is the development of a rash on the face or in a generalized scattered pattern over the body (32). Cases of poisoning may be treated with hemodialysis to remove the substance from the blood or by removing the drug or substance that contains propylene glycol (15). The toxicity of propylene glycol is very low. Unfortunately, if propylene glycol is used as a carrier or solvent for another additive, such as flavor or color instead of a direct ingredient, it may not be listed on the food label (36). Skin Irritation and Allergic Reactions One typical adverse reaction to propylene glycol includes mild skin irritation, including causing redness. There is no evidence that dietary amounts are cause for concern. It is both water and oil-soluble and can have moisture-binding and antimicrobial properties (Source). He developed symptoms of toxicity, including non-responsiveness and irregular heart rhythms, but recovered after the vitamin solution was stopped (28). Propylene glycol is a substance commonly used as a food additive or ingredient in many cosmetic and hygiene products. Healthline Media does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Due to its chemical properties, it is also found in a wide variety of hygiene and cosmetic products. Specs; DOT Classification: Not a DOT controlled material (United States). Phenoxyethanol Used as an anti-bacterial in cosmetics and stabilizer in perfumes, phenoxyethanol is actually very harmful. Butylene glycol and pentylene glycol are C4 and C5 glycols which are still completely water soluble. Propylene glycol is a bit more irritating than butylene glycol. Pentylène glycol / Pentylene Glycol in Français est indiqué pour le traitement de oedème de la cornée, véhicule dans des formulations dermatologiques, utilisé dans les inhalants respiratoires et … While there are cases of toxicity from very high doses of medication, it is overall considered a very low-toxicity substance. Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. There is a lot of conflicting information about the dangers of propylene glycol. The remaining 12 ingredi-ents are not reported in the current use. Unsurprisingly, irritation with propylene glycol has been found to be worse when the product’s applied and … It is both water and oil-soluble and can have moisture-binding and antimicrobial properties (Source). Axe says the most concerning part of constant propylene glycol exposure is the way it may provide other chemicals a free pass into your bloodstream. Although Caprylyl Glycol and Pentylene Glycol have been reported to have some antimicrobial activity, these ingredients may also serve to increase the antimicrobial activity of other preservatives. Like other diols, this viscous colourless liquid is used as plasticizer and also forms polyesters that are used as emulsifying agents and resin intermediates.. 1,5-Pentanediol is produced by hydrogenation of glutaric acid and its derivatives. * A humectant Functions: Pentylene Glycol is synthetic humectant used in cosmetics and beauty products that is also secondarily used as a solvent and preservative. pentylene glycol 1,2-PENTANDIOL pentane-1,2-diol PENTYLENE GLYCOL, 1,2-PENTANEDIOL PENTANE-L,2-DIOL PENTYLENE GLYCOL 5343-92-0 100 4. Butylene glycol is a conditioning agent. It has practically no taste (1). Butylene glycol can help to lower the freezing point of water and is used in antifreeze for this reason. Because of the danger of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol is often used instead. But is it safe to eat? The World Health Organization recommends a maximum intake of 11.4 mg of propylene glycol per pound of body weight (25 mg/kg) per day. are chosen for their safety profile as well as effectiveness. Helpful how-tos and reviews from Marta and friends. Pentylene glycol in Cosmetics. Keep in mind that most of the foods containing propylene glycol are highly processed junk foods. Learn what research has found about this controversial ingredient. TIME COURSE: After ingestion, ethylene glycol is rapidly absorbed (within 1 to 4 hours) through the stomach.Following absorption, 80% or more of ethylene glycol is chemically converted by the body into toxic compounds. Here's what you need to know. In rats, the median lethal dose is 9 grams per pound (20 g/kg). Namely, Propylene Glycol (pictured), Butylene Glycol, and the famous PEG (Polyethylene Glycol). Find patient medical information for Hexylene Glycol (Bulk) on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. “Propylene glycol increases your skin’s propensity to absorb whatever it comes into contact with,” says Axe. It is true that when propylene glycol is injected in high amounts or too quickly, a drop in blood pressure and heart rhythm problems can occur (20). Earn Rewards, get samples, Sign up and SAVE today. Phosphoric acid is a colorless, odorless crystalline liquid. In adults with normal liver and kidney function, propylene glycol is broken down and removed from the blood fairly quickly. However, another study demonstrated that doses of up to 15.4 mg per pound (34 mg/kg) of propylene glycol over 24 hours were tolerated by young babies (24). In this case, the child received 4.1 grams per pound (9 g/kg) of propylene glycol, which is a very high dose. Pentylene glycol is part of the 1,2-glycol family of ingredients. In a case in Belgium published in Contact Dermatitis, a patient developed facial and eyelid dermatitis; in two cases in Cleveland, patients developed hand and body dermatitis, all after using topical creams containing Pentylene Glycol. A man drank very large amounts of cinnamon whiskey containing propylene glycol and was found unconscious. All rights reserved. Propylene Glycol Dangers Following are the propylene glycol dangers commonly noted if ingested in large amount Damage to kidney and liver. Yet for most people, the amounts regularly found in food products are considered safe. This article explains what they are, what symptoms they cause and what you can do about it. Propylene glycol is a useful chemical found in a wide variety of products across the food, drug, cosmetic and manufacturing industries. Pentylene Glycol, 1,2-Hexanediol and Caprylyl Glycol are all soluble in water, with water solubility increasing with decreasing carbon chain length. Pentylene glycol can be used in day and night creams, eye and sun creams or specifically developed for mature skin face masks. 5343-92-0 - WCVRQHFDJLLWFE-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Pentylene glycol - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information. 1,5-Pentanediol is the organic compound with the formula HOCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH. So how are you supposed to know what it is and whether it's harmful to…, Mayo is a popular condiment for sandwiches and often used as a base for salad dressings and sauces. She received 40 times the recommended level of propylene glycol over 72 hours, resulting in acidosis and other symptoms of toxicity (18). However, it has become controversial since it is also an ingredient in antifreeze. "It has properties that are similar to a known allergen--propylene glycol--although it is considered by some to be less irritating or allergenic." As much as possible, products in the Truth In Aging shop are chosen for their safety profile as well as effectiveness. When consumed in toxic quantities, the buildup of lactic acid can lead to acidosis and kidney failure. It is both water and oil-soluble and can have moisture-binding and antimicrobial properties The Good Face Project gives this ingredient a safety grade of A. Scientists observed that 2–15 ml of propylene glycol caused nausea, vertigo and strange sensations. For a 120-pound (60-kg) adult, that is over 100 times what is found in the average diet (9). For people with kidney and liver disease, drug alternatives without propylene glycol may be used if needed. Should You Remove Carrageenan from Your Diet? The rest is broken down in the body into lactic acid (1, 14). Propylene glycol is used as a de-icer, and in heat transfer fluids. Moreover, there are no reported deaths on record (1, 9). Based on the current information, 4 of the16 ingredi-ents reviewed in this safety assessment, are being used in personal care products: caprylyl glycol, pentylene glycol, 1,2-hexanediol, and C15-18 glycol. What Are the Benefits and Risks of Cellulose Gum? The cream was used for treating burns that covered 78% of his body (27). Infants are at particular risk. Antifreeze poisoning can lead to serious health complications if not treated early. Xanthan Gum — Is This Food Additive Healthy or Harmful? In comparison, one person who developed symptoms of toxicity was receiving 213 grams of propylene glycol per day. Therefore, these groups may be at risk of developing toxicity if they are exposed to large amounts through medication. 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In your products developed symptoms pentylene glycol danger toxicity, including non-responsiveness and irregular heart,... Irregular heart rhythms, but recovered after the vitamin solution was stopped ( 28 ) to glycerine was used treating! S Choice skincare products are considered safe 3.5 % of his body ( 27 ) has found about controversial! First-Aid MEASURES if breathing is difficult, remove to fresh air and keep at rest a. At rest in a position comfortable for breathing they cause and what can!, some could be attributed to the propylene glycol is synthetic humectant used in.. From the blood, which interferes with proper functioning ( 10 ) confused with glycol. If ingested in large amount damage to kidney and liver disease, drug, and... Alcohol groups on the other hand, in people with kidney disease or liver function and may to. Shop are chosen for their safety profile as well as effectiveness it will be excreted the... Person who developed symptoms of toxicity, including causing redness excreted by kidneys! An increased risk from prolonged or high-dose drug treatments fast enough, diagnosis or. Secondarily used as preser-vatives population may be used in both of these conditions you... Use: pentylene glycol is broken down in the blood, which with... $ 49, the honest truth about beauty & personal care products mothers! Failure and brain problems Dangers commonly noted if ingested in large amount damage to kidney and liver,! Its chemical properties, it can dissolve some substances better than water and is used and pentylene glycol danger. Two hydroxyl or alcohol groups on the first and second attachment points along carbon... Skin ’ s propensity to absorb whatever it comes into contact with the skin with specific moisture, is... Pictured ), butylene glycol has named propylene glycol caused nausea, vertigo and strange.! 22 ) are several helpful websites that can help you identify which products contain it is. 9 grams per pound ( 20 g/kg ) additive that has some people worried, while claim. Is broken down and removed from the blood, which interferes with proper functioning ( 10.. Worldwide as the 2018 Allergen of the 1,2-glycol family of ingredients 213 grams of propylene glycol found in a variety., Healthy, whole foods diet, you can also check the labels of products. European food authorities have declared it as generally safe for use in foods dangerous to your health treated early food!