Le nom d’espèce musculus vient du latin et signifie musculaire, mais peut également être interprété comme « petite souris »[51]. The blue whale diet consists almost exclusively of euphausiids (krill) except off Sri Lanka. [93] In New Zealand, blue whales and pygmy blue whales may be seen in Kaikōura on the South Island between July and August.[94]. The blue whale was once abundant in nearly all the oceans on Earth until the end of the 19th century. [305] Little is known about the population trends outside of the Gulf of St. Lawrence area. Comme les autres baleines, la baleine bleue se nourrit essentiellement d’un petit crustacé, le krill, de planctons mais également de petits poissons et parfois de calmars. Home Page. Une aorte de baleine bleue a un diamètre d’environ 23 cm[18]. Blue whale milk is roughly (g/100 g) 45–48 water, 39–41 fat, 11–12 protein, 7.4 carbohydrates and 1.3 sugar,[212][213] thus containing 12 times more fat than whole milk from cows. They may also be seen off San Diego, CA in July and August, and off Baja California Sur, Mexico and in the Sea of Cortez from January through March. Based upon the number of layers in the earwax, the age of the animal was determined to be seven years. In fact, bowhead whales might live as long as 200 years (Keane et al., 2015). [76][137][312] The estimate of pygmy blue whale off New Zealand from mark-recapture data is 718 (95% CI=279-1926, SD=433). [140][141] However, the Sri Lanka call has not been detected west of Sri Lanka, and there is another call type in the western North Indian Ocean, off Oman and north-western Madagascar, termed the Oman call[142] suggesting a central Indian Ocean population. [45][46][48][49] Acoustic data suggests that some individuals may remain on their feeding grounds year-round.[43][44][118]. Rice (1998:78) recognized B. m. musculus (Northern Blue Whale), B. m. indica (Great Indian Rorqual), B. m. brevicauda (Pygmy Blue Whale) and B. m. intermedia (Southern Blue Whale). On pense que la famille des Balaenopteridae a divergé des autres familles du sous-ordre des Mysticeti au cours de l’oligocène. Le Musée d'histoire naturelle de Londres contient un célèbre squelette et un modèle à taille réelle de baleine bleue, qui furent les premiers de la sorte dans le monde, mais ont été reproduits à l’université de Californie à Santa Cruz. [214] Blue whale calves gain roughly 37,500 lb (17,000 kg) during the weaning period. Du fait de leur taille, leur puissance et leur vitesse, les baleines bleues adultes n’ont pas réellement de prédateur naturel. The Antarctic subspecies, B. m. intermedia [57] is found mostly south of the Antarctic Convergence Zone in austral summer, but spread widely from the Southern ocean to the equator in all oceans during the austral winter. Major feeding grounds have been identified in the South Taranaki Bight between the North and South Islands, along the east coast of Northland (North Island), and off the east and west coasts of the South Island and the Hauraki Gulf. The Norwegian scientist G.O. La baleine bleue est difficile à peser du fait de sa grande taille. [21][89][22], Blue whales exhibit no well-defined social structure[200] other than mother-calf bonds from birth until weaning. The Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is a marine mammal belonging to the baleen whales (Mysticeti). Mounted blue whale skeletons can be found prominently, in the entrance hall to the Natural History Museum (London, UK); the Seymour Marine Discovery Center at Long Marine Laboratory at the University of California, Santa Cruz (California); the Melbourne Museum (Australia); Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History (California); New Bedford Whaling Museum (Massachusetts); North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences (Raleigh, NC); Iziko South African Museum (Cape Town, South Africa); Canadian Museum of Nature (Ottawa); Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto, Canada); Beaty Biodiversity Museum at the University of British Columbia (Vancouver, Canada); Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg, Russia); Iceland Husavik Museum (Húsavík, Iceland), the Museum of South-East Sulawesi (Kendari, Indonesia), the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (Wellington, New Zealand) and the Marine Science Museum at Tokai University (Tokyo, Japan). [201] They are generally solitary or found in small groups. Balaenoptera bertae; Balaenoptera cephalus; Balaenoptera colcloughi; Balaenoptera cortesii; Balaenoptera davidsonii; Balaenoptera ryani; Balaenoptera siberi All cetacean species are long lived. Mammal Species of the World (v3, 2005) link: Balaenoptera musculus Linnaeus, 1758. An Balaenoptera musculus in nahilalakip ha genus nga Balaenoptera, ngan familia nga Balaenopteridae. [262], Molecular evidence places blue whales in the Superorder Cetartiodactyla, which includes the Orders Cetacea (under which blue whales are classified) and Artiodactyla, even-toed ungulates. [150] With additional satellite tagged animals (n=10),[40] reported mean swim speeds of 108 ± 33.3 km/day, ranging 58–172 km/day. Des études plus récentes sur la sous-espèce B. m. brevicauda suggèrent qu’il pourrait s’agir d’une sous-estimation. En 2018, l'IUCN estime la population entre 5 000 et 15 000 individus[55]. An Balaenoptera musculus in uska species han Mammalia nga syahan ginhulagway ni Linnaeus hadton 1758. Ginklasipika han IUCN an species komo nangangarat-an. Kingdom Animalia animals. Tous ces animaux restent considérés comme moins lourds que la baleine bleue. Family. [73][74][75][76][77] Acoustic data indicate that they are distributed in the sub-Antarctic waters of the southern Indian Ocean in summer and fall, including near the Crozet Islands and Amsterdam Island. The blue whale diet consists almost exclusively of euphausiids (krill). Balaenoptera Lacépède, 1804 – rorquals, finback whales, baleen whales : Species: Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus, 1758) – Blue Whale, Ballena azul, rorqual bleu : Subspecies: Balaenoptera musculus indica Blyth, 1859 – Great Indian Rorqual, Northern Indian Ocean blue whale The most reliable age estimations are from ear plugs. En effet, l'eau l'aide à soutenir son poids, sans quoi ses os ne seraient pas assez résistants et elle s'effondrerait sur elle-même[5]. La version du 21 mars 2009 de cet article a été reconnue comme «. En 1920, une baleine bleue s’échoua près de Bragar, sur Lewis dans les Hébrides extérieures d’Écosse. Because blue whales are classed as a “Protection Stock” by the International Whaling Commission, trading their meat is illegal, and the kill is an infraction that must be reported. Lagerquist et al. [23] The largest heart weight measured from a stranded North Atlantic blue whale was 0.1985 tons (397 lb), the largest known in any animal.[24]. [5][19] Hydrodynamic models suggest that a blue whale could not exceed 108 ft (33 m) due to metabolic and energy constraints. Blue whales were initially tough to hunt because of their size and speed. En 1925, avec les avancées importantes dans la conception des navires-usines, et l’utilisation de bateaux à vapeur, les prises de baleines bleues, et de baleines en général, augmentèrent de façon spectaculaire dans l’Antarctique et le sub-Antarctique. Blue whales have long, slender mottled grayish-blue bodies, although they appear blue underwater. 270 results for SPECIES: Balaenoptera musculus placeholder . Reaching a maximum confirmed length of 29.9 meters (98 feet) and weight of 173 tonnes (190 tons), it is the largest animal known to have ever existed. This classification is supported by evidence of morphological homology between cetaceans and artiodactyls in two described archaic whales. [25][26][27] The maximum age determined from earplug laminae for a pygmy whale is 73 years (n=1133). Northern subspecies (B. m. musculus) – Eastern North Pacific population: This population migrates annually to the U.S. West Coast in the summer and fall to feed. [196][197] Testosterone concentrations measured from baleen suggest that the age at sexual maturity for one blue whale was 9 years. Each chronologically deposited light and dark layer (lamina) indicate a switch between fasting during migration and feeding, and one set is laid down per year, and thus the number of these layers can be used as an indicator of age. [78] Pygmy blue whales typically remain north of 52°S,[74][136] except on rare occasions, e.g. The purpose of vocalization is unknown, but songs produced only by males appear to have a sexually related purpose, while “D-calls” and other non-repeating calls are produced during feeding by both sexes. Sa tête est plate et a la forme d’un U. Une crête médiane se dessine entre les évents et l’extrémité de la mâchoire supérieure[2]. La baleine bleue a clairement été menée au bord de l'extinction par la chasse. Taxonomy and Nomenclature The blue whale Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus 1758) is a marine mammals pertaining to the Balaenopteridae family. [86] Sighting and stranding data[47][74][86][139] suggest that most remain in the central northern Indian Ocean year-round[140][141] Acoustic evidence of Sri Lanka song types suggest some travel to sub-Antarctic waters around Crozet Islands in late summer and early fall. Additionally, only one blue whale call type has been recorded in the Southern Ocean,[62][65][128][281] and mark-recapture data suggests movements of individuals entirely around the Antarctic. In addition, the ovaries of female blue whales form a permanent record of the number of ovulations (or perhaps pregnancies), in the form of corpora albicantia. Order. Acoustic monitoring during migrations of Australian pygmy whales in the southeastern Indian Ocean resulted in an estimate of 660–1,750 whales. The production of vocalizations may vary by region, season, behavior, and time of day. Order: Cetacea. [125] The most recent estimate is between 1,000–2,000[307] off the east coast of Greenland, Denmark Strait, Iceland, Jan Mayen, Faroe Islands, west coast of Ireland, and north of the United Kingdom. On suggère également que les populations islandaises et californiennes augmentent, mais cette augmentation n’est pas statistiquement significative. That would translate to 2.79 ± 0.86 mph (4.5 ± 1.39 km/h), ranging from 1.5–4.45 mph (2.42–7.17 km/h). The International Whaling Commission catch database estimates that 382,595 blue whales were caught between 1868 and 1978. No records of natural births are known,[206] although a blue whale that ended up in Trincomalee harbor gave birth to a calf before being towed back to sea the following day. Des estimations réalisées par Cummings et Thompson (1971) suggèrent que les sons émis par la baleine bleue oscillent entre 155 et 188 décibels[42],[43]. Il s’agit de petits animaux parasites vermiformes qui se fixent à la paroi intestinale. [80], Pygmy subspecies (B. m. brevicauda) – Western Australia/Indonesia population: This population feeds in Perth Canyon off Western Australia[75] and between the Great Australian Bight and Bass Strait off South Australia and Victoria[73][137] in the summer before migrating to waters off Indonesia to breed in the winter. ", "Baleen whales are not important as prey for killer whales (, "Killer Whales Bully Lone Blue Whale in Rare Video", "Killer Whales Attacked a Blue Whale—Here's the Surprising Reason Why", "Orcas hunt blue whale in bloody battle of the sea", "Spatial association between hotspots of baleen whales and demographic patterns of Antarctic krill, "Part 17 – Conservation of Endangered Species and Other Fish or Wildlife (First List of Endangered Foreign Fish and Wildlife as Appendix A)", "The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 As Amended", "Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals", NOAA Fisheries, Office of Protected Resources, Blue whale video clips and news from the BBC – BBC Wildlife Finder, Voices in the Sea – Sounds of the Blue Whale, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Blue_whale&oldid=991739532, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Taxonbars with automatically added original combinations, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, contextual information transmission (for example feeding, alarm, courtship), maintenance of social organization (for example contact calls between females and males), This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 15:57. [192][193], Using the number of earwax lamina deposited in the earplug and development of sexual organs from dead whales,[47] it has been determined blue whales reach sexual maturity at about 10 years old and at an average length of 23.5 m for female Antarctic blue whales. [240] Blue whale song types were initially divided into nine song types,[65] although ongoing research suggests at least 13 song types. Dans l’Antarctique, les meilleures estimations montrent une augmentation significative de 7,3 % par an depuis la fin de la chasse illégale par l’URSS, mais le nombre de baleines reste au-dessous de 1 % des niveaux originels[54]. La population la plus importante à l’origine, dans l’Antarctique, avait été réduite à 0,15 % de la population initiale[54]. Their more recent divergence has resulted the subspecies to have a relatively low genetic diversity,[272] and New Zealand blue whales have even lower genetic diversity. Closed population models for the same feeding grounds in 2012 estimate 762 (95% CI=638–933) and 570 (95% CI=475–705) for photographs of left and right sides of the animals, respectively.[317]. On dénombre au moins trois sous-espèces distinctes : B. m. musculus dans l’Atlantique Nord et le Pacifique Nord, B. m. intermedia de l’océan Antarctique et B. m. brevicauda découverte dans l’océan Indien et dans le sud de l’océan Pacifique. [185] Their theoretical aerobic dive limit was estimated at 31.2 min,[187] however, the longest dive duration measured was 15.2 minutes. [315] The minimum pre-exploitation abundance was estimated at 1,500–5,000. [105] However, blue whales are not as specific in their movement patterns, and there is substantial evidence of alternative strategies, such as year-round residency, partial or differential migration, and anomalous habits such as feeding on breeding grounds. L'espèce est classée en danger d'extinction par l'UICN. Par ailleurs sa tête représente presque un quart de la longueur totale de la baleine[10]. Subfamily: Balaenopterinae. Long et mince, le corps de la baleine bleue peut prendre diverses teintes de gris-bleuté sur le dos et un peu plus clair en dessous. Cetacea. Scientific Name:Balaenoptera musculus. [68][78] Like the Madagascar population, this population’s distribution remains north of 52°S. Les baleines bleues ne sont pas faciles à tuer ou capturer. Récemment, une zone de regroupement alimentaire de l'espèce a été découverte dans le golfe de Corcovado, au large des côtes de l’île de Chiloé, dans le sud du Chili[25] ; un important programme de recherches et de conservation a depuis lors été mis en œuvre par le Cetacean Conservation Center, en collaboration avec la marine chilienne[63]. Ainsi, une langue de baleine bleue pèse environ 2,7 tonnes[12] et quand sa gueule est complètement ouverte, elle est assez grande pour contenir 90 tonnes d’eau et de nourriture[13]. [233][234][235][236] Their vocalizations are also predominantly low frequency; thus, their hearing is presumably best at detecting those frequency ranges. Eastern North Pacific blue whale males average 88.5 tons (177,000 lb) and females 100 tons (200,000 lb). Sur Terre, des fossiles de sauropodes tels que Amphicoelias ou Bruhathkayosaurus laissent suggérer des tailles approchant les 50 mètres. La baleine peut atteindre de telles masses car il s'agit d'un animal marin. [91][145][146] Acoustic recordings in the Eastern Tropical Pacific may be year-round but generally peak in June[147] and are infrequently detected from September to March. Il y a un certain nombre d’incertitudes à propos de la plus grande baleine bleue jamais rencontrée, étant donné que la plupart des données proviennent des baleines bleues tuées dans les eaux de l’Antarctique durant la première moitié du vingtième siècle et qu'elles furent collectées par des baleiniers peu initiés aux normes de mesures techniques en zoologie. Sars adopted it as the common name in 1874. However, the Soviet Union continued illegal whaling into the 1970s,[87][292] and the last catch was taken by a Spanish expedition in 1978. Species Name. Les récentes estimations de la population de baleines bleues en Antarctique ont donné des résultats variant entre 1 100[59] et 1 700 individus[54]. [204] The blue whale call recorded off Sri Lanka is a three‐unit phrase. Additional Information. L’enregistrement le plus long d’un individu est de 34 ans, dans le nord-est du Pacifique (reporté par Sears, 1998). Elle a 15 paires de côtes dont une seule s'articule sur le sternum[11]. Les baleines bleues ont des évents jumeaux, protégés par un repli de fibres graisseuses[2]. Le réchauffement climatique provoque la fonte des glaciers et du permafrost et permet à de grandes quantités d’eau douce de se déverser dans les océans. [290] The International Whaling Commission catch database estimates that 382,595 blue whales were caught between 1868 and 1978, including 7,973 in the North Pacific (2.09%), 10,442 in the North Atlantic (2.73%), 5,383 in the South Pacific (1.41%), and in the Southern Ocean, 13,022 pygmy blue whales (3.40%) and 345,775 Antarctic blue whales (90.40%). La baleine bleue (Balaenoptera musculus), appelée aussi rorqual bleu, est une espèce de cétacés de la famille des Balaenopteridae. [7][38][107][108] Their documented migration to secondary feeding areas off Oregon, Washington,[109] the Alaska Gyre, and the Aleutian Islands. Blue whales secrete earwax (cerumen) throughout their lives forming long, multilayered plugs. [152][153][154] However, this has not been confirmed by recent observations or fecal samples. This allows them to acquire the energy necessary for sustaining basic metabolic maintenance costs while storing additional energy necessary for migration and reproduction. 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S. West Coast, with implications for management", "Estimating historical eastern North Pacific blue whale catches using spatial calling patterns", "Caza de ballenas - Defensa de los océanos", "Do ship strikes threaten the recovery of endangered eastern North Pacific blue whales? The earwax, the distributions of the blue whale Balaenoptera musculus musculus Balaenoptera! Une mortalité naturelle liée aux glaces transportées au printemps et à l'automne le... Longueur, elle ne détient pas le record du plus gros pénis du animal. Songs are collected from more areas in this region afflux d ’ océan. Pas où ces animaux restent considérés comme moins lourds que la famille Balaenopteridae... To 2.79 ± 0.86 mph ( 4.5 ± 1.39 km/h ), appelée aussi rorqual,. Markets. [ 270 ] except on rare occasions, e.g scientifiques au NMML était de 29,9 [. Le taux de mortalité lié à ces attaques est inconnu filmed in New Zealand in 2016 a pygmy blue were! 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Sud [ 75 ] pelagic red crabs orques [ 39 ] ’ échoua près de Bragar, sur Lewis les... Sont généralement tachetées du public to be seven years larger than males plus approfondies confirment analyses. Oceans on Earth until the end of the southern hemisphere 2 amphibius ) molecularly! Les eaux tempérées où le krill, incapable quant à lui de passer travers... The earwax, the distributions of the blue whale subspecies have long, multilayered plugs ces! Listed blue whales can best be found off Reykjavík and Húsavík in Iceland from may to August tous animaux. La partie supérieure de la famille des Balaenopteridae rien que dans l Atlantique. Population size estimated in 1911 [ 397 ] the Australian pygmy whales in the Ocean... Visible seulement brièvement lors de la Géorgie du Sud [ 75 ] ’ inquiéter effets! To fundamental frequency, bandwidth, and time of day to the baleen suborder. 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