Tjallingii, and J.C. Van-Lenteren. Progress of the viral incidence (%) in 18 pepper genotypes from Southern Mexico. These relationships were particularly strong in the pepper genotypes 'Chawa', 'Amaxito', 'Verde', 'Maax' and 'Simojovel' (Figure 4). Defense-related proteins in higher plants. Vendramim. In this context, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) Cuadernos de Biodiversidad 27. p. 11-22. and Capsicum frutescens Linn. 500 p. Microcomputer Power, Ithaca, New York, USA. Adult attractiveness and oviposition preference of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) Diversidad morfológica de chiles (Capsicum spp.) Garzón-Tiznado, and J.L. [ Links ], Prado, U.G. Evaluation of viral incidence and severity Incidence and severity of viral symptoms were evaluated weekly. Shatters, H. Doostdar, S.D. [ Links ] Anaya-López, J.L., I. Torres-Pacheco, M. González-Chavira, J.A. (2008) working with C. annuum genotypes. [ Links ], Milla, A. PC 2 was strongly contributed by positive loading of MLL and MLW. In contrast, two groups were formed for area under the severity progress curve (Scott-Knott P < 0.05), where the low severity group was formed by 'Dulce', 'Verde', 'X'catic', 'Chawa', 'Blanco', 'Amaxito', 'Miraparriba', 'Maax', and 'Simojovel' (ranking 7.75 ± 4.51 to 84.62 ± 16.64). 2003. [ Links ] McKenzie, C.L., R.G. Jarret, et al. Caracterización morfológica de cien introducciones de Capsicum del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Palmira. Twelve principal components were selected as meaningful factors explaining 94% of the total variation of morphological characteristics, and the contribution of each morphological characteristic to PC was differential, underlining the influence of fruit morphological characteristics. 1989. Cohen, W.G. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (CA) was carried out with the most valued variables from the PCA. The fruit is a berry and may be green, yellow, or red when ripe. Introduction to plant disease epidemiology. 1999. They are used as spices, vegetable and medicine. Effect of UV-B radiation on morphology, phenolic compound production, gene expression, and subsequent drought stress responses in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). 10-4-2006;54(20):7508-7516. Similarly, Hernández et al. Results were expressed as number of nymphs per squared centimeter. Shapiro, D.E. Chili Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an annual herb that belongs to Solanaceae family (Greenleaf, 1986).It has been used for thousands of years and has become an important ingredient of cooking. [ Links ], Pérez-Casteñeda, L., M.G. 1963. [ Links ], Janssen, J.A.M., W.F. Scientia Agricola 64:147-151. 1992. American Journal of Botany 96:1190-1202. (2010), who showed high CV in fruit color when assessing the morphological and agronomic characteristics of Capsicum species. This is the result of the major variation in fruit shape of C. annuum complexes (Pardey et al., 2006; Moscone et al., 2007; Castañón-Nájera et al., 2010). Capsicum annuum is the most widely cultivated species; Capsicum frutescens is sometimes cultivated in the MA. [8] The single flowers are an off-white (sometimes purplish) color while the stem is densely branched and up to 60 cm (24 in) tall. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana 29:25-29. Lesher-Gordillo, E. de la Cruz-Lazaro, y M. Mendoza-Elos. Biology of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) CANOCO Reference Manual and CanoDraw for Windows User'Guide: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (version 4.5). [ Links ] Heinz, K.M., and F.G. Zalom. Lee, M. Inbar, and R.T. Mayer. This work was supported by ProIFOPEP 2012, a program administrated by the general direction of technical higher education (DGEST, Mexico). Vasconcelos. Its most valuable application appears however to be in cynanche maligna (acute diphtheria) and scarlatina maligna (malignant Scarlet fever, used either as a gargle or administered internally.). In other studies, low variation in DF has been also observed. 2012. [ Links ], Morales, F.J. 2011. The goal of the present work was to characterize ex situ 18 genotypes of C. annuum from southern Mexico through 47 morphological descriptors, and to evaluate its response to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex. Mexico, as center of domestication and genetic diversity of C. annuum, has the cultivated species C. annuum L. var. Eurasian Soil Science 43:1439-1457. The relationships among the 17 morphological characteristics of 18 pepper genotypes, and the complex B. tabaci (nymphs and adults abundance only)-Begomovirus (severity and incidence) was assessed using Redundancy Analysis (RDA; Legendre and Legendre, 1998), which was selected over Canonical Correspondence Analysis because of reduced length of gradient of our variables (Ter Braak and Smilauer, 2002). glabriusculum is tetralocular. glabriusculum. Balzarini, L. González, M. Tablada, y C.W. The rainy season runs from June through October, when average temperature range from 28.5 to 26.8 °C. Surprisingly, the genotype 'Simojovel' showed high susceptibility to whitefly, but was grouped into genotypes with low symptom severity. 2012. 1998. In the absence of winter frosts it can survive several seasons and grow into a large, shrubby perennial herb. For example, commercial genotypes were noticeable in subgroup 2. Bolivian Rainbow with its fruits in different stages of ripeness. [ Links ] Ter Braak, C.J.F., and P. Smilauer. Breeding for resistance to whitefly-transmitted Geminiviruses. There was, however, variation in the degree of severity of viral symptoms. This region belongs to semi-arid bioclimatic stage characterized by sweet winter and cool summer. 2001. Capsicum annuum -- Ornamental Pepper Page 3 October 1999 Other Roots: not applicable Winter interest: not applicable Outstanding plant: not particularly outstanding Invasive potential: not known to be invasive Pest resistance Scaldaferro, M. Grabiele, N.M. Cecchini, G.Y. Due to its wide variation, CAC has been established as a descriptor of great importance in pepper, even to distinguish among pepper species (Sudre et al., 2010). The morphological characteristics with major contribution are marked inside the plot with an asterisk. 2002. [ Links ], Castañón-Nájera, G., L. Latournerie-Moreno, J.M. Anther or microspore culture induced haploid and double haploids (DH) are increasingly being utilized by breeders since it can shorten breeding time by achieving complete homozygosity within a single generation. [ Links ], Pardey, R.C., D.M.A. The first major cluster included only subgroup 1. González, P.P. This group of viruses is exclusively transmitted by B. tabaci in a persistent, circulative manner and infects a wide range of dicotyledonous plants (Lapidot and Friedmann, 2002). This work shows that in Southern Mexico there is great morphological diversity of land-race peppers to intra-genotypes level, however characteristics such as days to flowering (DF) and fruit color at intermediate stage (FCIS) showed minor variation. Studies on host plant resistance to Begomovirus have been carried out in various crops, such as tomato, bean, and cassava. Genotypes collection and seedling establishment Wild and semi-cultivated genotypes of C. annuum were collected in home gardens and rural markets in the states of Tabasco, Chiapas, and Yucatan (Table 1). HortScience 38:251-255. This alternative uses wild and semi-domesticated relatives of cultivated species as sources of pest resistance genes and in turn as an effective tool to minimize losses due to phytophagous insects or vector-borne virus diseases (Sharma and Ortiz, 2002). to two— Capsicum annuum Linn. Influence of trichomes on attractiveness and ovipositional preference of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) It is possible that domestication of pepper might have produced such differences between both pepper groups, which affected in a bidirectional way (Castañón-Nájera et al., 2008). AGRO-MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF 16 TRADITIONAL PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) CULTIVARS FROM CASTILLA-LA MANCHA (CENTRAL SPAIN). The fruit are berriesthat may be green, yellow, orange or red when ripe. Springer, New York, USA. 349 p. Academic Press, New York, USA. Likewise, the number of PC formed indicates high variation in C. annuum genotypes as reported by Matthew et al. [ Links ], Elbert, A., and R. Nauen. Morphological characterization of Capsicum annuum L. accessions from southern Mexico and their response to the Bemisia tabaci-Begomovirus complex Horacio Ballina-Gómez 1 , Luis Latournerie-Moreno, Esaú Ruiz-Sánchez 1* , Alfonso Pérez-Gutiérrez , Two commercial genotypes ('Jalapeno' and 'Pimiento') were also included in the collection as standard controls for susceptibility to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex. Variations in the fruit morphological features of Capsicum annuum varieties were studied. Pimientos, Compendios de Horticultura. en Tabasco, Mexico. In W.M.O. 2002. These components explained 94% of the variation. Values with the same letter within a column are not significantly different according to Scott-Knott cluster analysis (P < 0.05). Previous study on genetic diversity and structure in wild and domesticated C. annuum population in Mexico found a large number of distinct genotypes, which strongly suggests that this area is an important center of diversity and domestication of peppers (Aguilar et al., 2009). Van Heusden, A. Harpenas, E.D.J. Patterns of genetic variation of the genus Capsicum (Solanaceae) in Mexico. accuminatum and annuum is bilocular, and that of var. The PC 3 was contributed by positive loading for FCSC, followed by negative and minor loading of BH, AL and NBF (Table 3; Figure 1). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was carried out with the statistics mean and modes of each variable, which allow for the identification of the most important variables in the description of the observed variance of germplasm. In a long-term scenario, resistance to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex might be used in breeding programs related to pest management. Values are means ± standard error of incidence and severity of virus symptoms in Capsicum annuum genotypes. p. 15-49. [ Links ], Lapidot, M., and M. Friedmann. Análisis multivariado: Método de componentes principales. en Yaxcaba, Yucatan. Table 1. 1979. grossum, and var. The species of Roxburgh, like C. pur-pureum, C. grossum, etc., and those of earlier writers, come under C. annuum New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 37:509-520. glabriusculum: Taxonomy, Plant Morphology, Distribution, Genetic Diversity, Genome Sequencing, and Phytochemical Compounds Corina Hayano‐Kanashiro Departamento de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas de la, Universidad de Sonora, Blvd. Plant Breeding 130:708-714. These components explained 94% of the variation. Values are means ± standard error of eggs/cm2 in leaves of Capsicum annuum genotypes. New constituents of sweet Capsicum annuum L. fruits and evaluation of their biological activity. Moreover, viral symptoms appeared in all genotypes as well. 2000. The evaluations were carried out 20, 27, 34, 41, 48, 55, 62, 69, and 76 d after transplant. For example, Sharma et al. The outcomes of such studies have been difficult to widely adopt due to the variation in occurrence of virus strains in certain geographic areas (Borah and Dasgupta, 2012). Fourteen different DH lines were obtained as a result of anther culture of four parental genotypes. Visser, and B. Vosman. fasciculatum Irish. Notably, genotype 'Simojovel' showed high susceptibility to whitefly, but was grouped into genotypes with low symptom severity. Genotypes 'Chawa', 'Blanco', 'Maax' and 'X'catic' were into the low susceptibility to B. tabaci and low severity of viral symptoms. Shuh, Dai-mei, "Genetics and Morphology Associated With the Flowering Pattern, Flowers, and Leaves of Capsicum Annuum L. And Capsicum Chinense Jacq." Genetic diversity and structure in semiwild and domesticated chiles (Capsicum annuum: Solanaceae) from Mexico. [ Links ] Campbell, C.L., and L.V. Plant Disease 76:220-225. PLoS ONE 7:1-9. Campos, A.L. Comparisons of means were considered significantly different if P < 0.05. Genetic Diversity of some Chili (Capsicum annuum L.) Genotypes. Principal components analysis (PCA) of 47 morphological characteristics showed that 12 components were selected as meaningful factors. Variabilidad en características morfológicas de colectas de chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.) Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana 22:27-41. The genus Capsicum consists a range of 25–30 species and is indigenous to Central and South America (Kothari et al., 2010). Silvestres de Capsicum del banco de germoplasma de la Organización de los Estados,! The MA in other studies have been carried out in various crops, such as tomato, bean and! Cv for FCIS, other studies have reported the opposite, like that of Sudre al. Y H. 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